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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

KHASSI (STANDABD).                                                 0

Numerals, The forms are given in the list of words. Here it is to be observed
(1) that in Khassi the cardinal number always precedes the noun (e.g., af~ngut> two per-
sons: Idi-lyngJchot) three pieces), whereas in Tibeto-Burman it follows it ; (2) that in
Khassi there is no trace of the class-determinatives used in Tiheto-Burman and Tai with
numerals when applied to different groups of things.

, The Personal Pronouns are ngd, I ; ngi, we (both of common
gender); me (masc.), pha, (fern,), thou; phi (com. gen.), ye; u (masc,), ka (fern.), he,
she, it ; Jci (com gen.), they. All are declined as nouns. Ma- prefixed emphasises the
pronoun; ngd {a ong, ma-ngdI said, even I. Observe (1) that in these plurals alone
are found in Khassi traces of inflexion, and (2) that in the second and third persons the
common plural is' formed from the/ewje singular. The feminine is also used where we
should use the neuter, as in impersonal verbs : Isa, del, it is necessary ; Jca la slap, it
rained ; Jca-ne, this ; ka-ta, that, of sexless things,
The pronouns of the third person are converted into Demonstratives by the addition
of particles denoting the position of things with reference to the speaker. These suffixes
are;  (1) near^this, ne (u-ne, Jca-ne} t~ne, ki-ne) ; (2) in sight, but further off that, to
(u-tOj etc.); (3) further off, but still visible =:that, tai (u-tai, etc.); (4) out of sight, or only
contemplated in the mind=that, ta (n-tat etc.). After these, the* article5 must be
repeated before the noun : this man=^-we u Wiw.
The Relative Pronoun is, in the same way, the personal pronoun of the third
person followed by the adjective or relative particle ba~u-ba, Jca-ba, i-ba, Jcl-bct. E.g.,
f there was a man who had two som'^la-don u-wei u-briw u-ba la-don dr-ngut Jsi-lchun
shinrang. a is sometimes used as a relative without the ( article.*
The Interrogative Pronoun is the ' article ' followed by no or ei, (u-no, lea-no,
M-no3 who? which? u-eit ka-ei, M-ei, id.). M is often used without the 'article9; and
-no (which is restricted to persons), when declined, regularly drops the * article', e,g ., jong-
no, whose? ia-no, whom? sha-no, to whom? "What? neuter, is amJi^ and also Ica-ei.
The Eeflexive Pronoun, referring to the subject of the sentence8 is la, for all
persons.
YEBBS,  The verbal root (which never varies) may be simple or compound. The
compound roots are (1) Causals, formed by prefixing pyn to the simple root; iap, die;
pyn-iap, kill- (2) Freyuentatives, formed by prefixing iai; idm, weep; iai-idmt weep
continually: (3) Incentives, by prefixing 'man ; stad> be wise; man-stdd, grow wise:
(4) Reciprocals, by prefixing ia: 'ieit, love; ia-ieit, love one another: (5) Intensives, by
prefixing the particles Jcyn, lyn, syn, tyn. Any noun or adjective may be treated as a
verbal root by means of a prefix of these five classes. Thus, Jcajia, a quarrel (Hindustani
loan-word, qazia) ; ia-kajia, to quarrel with one another ; bynta (Hindostanl loan-word),
share ; pyn-ia-bynta (reciprocal-causal), to divide between several persons : 'riwbha, rich
man ; man-'rtwbhd, to grow rich : bhd> good; pyn-bhd> to make good.
There are two verbs for * to be,' lony, implying existence absolutely, and don, imply-
ing limited existence, and also meaning /to have.'